All About Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the body is not able to produce enough insulin or respond properly to insulin which results in blood sugar levels becoming abnormally increased. It is usually associated with urination and thirst and some people also experience Weight loss Even if they’re trying to gain weight.
People who know of diabetes mellitus or simply diabetes usually know that it occurs in two forms i.e. type one and type two. While most people may not be aware that it also has other forms such as gestational diabetes and another peculiar form known as diabetes 1.5. These forms of diabetes are responsible for Affecting The major group of the population that is suffering from this metabolic disorder. All these forms of diabetes usually cause chronic damage to the body if they are left untreated for a long period. All 4 forms of diabetes have a common factor that the body is not producing insulin in sufficient amounts. Insulin is responsible for the uptake of glucose from the blood into the cells so that it can be broken down to produce energy which is required by the cells to perform their functions.
SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES MELLITUS
Although most forms of diabetes share similar traits and features yet there are also some particular symptoms related especially to each one of them. All of the symptoms are mostly related to the fact that the body is not able to obtain energy from the consumed food resulting in increased blood glucose levels.
According to research, around 7.2 million individuals in the United States are suffering from diabetes and they do not even know it. An even larger 84.1 million people according to statistics are in their pre-diabetic phase. These figures alarm health professionals like us to educate people on diabetic symptoms more so that they can assess their condition and report to a physician for treatment. Usual diabetic symptoms are described below:
– Increased urination
– Weight loss
– Increased hunger despite being eating normally
– Nausea & vomiting
– Frequent yeast infections
– Frequent urinary infections
– Blurred vision
– Dry skin
– Increased thirst
– Decreased ability of wound healing
– Slow infection healing
– Increase of dental diseases such as bad breath and cavities
– Sensation of pain, numbness, tingling in feet
If any individual is having one or more than one of these above-mentioned symptoms for some time then they should take a blood sugar test. If the blood sugar test also reports an increased glucose level then he should immediately consult with a physician for diagnosis.
AETIOLOGY OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DIABETES MELLITUS
Diabetes is divided into four types, type 1, type 1.5, type 2, and Gestational diabetes.
TYPE 1 DIABETES
Type one diabetes mellitus is regarded as an autoimmune disease that is Relatively Not so common and affects only a small percentage of people with diabetes. The pathogenic process behind this is that Autoantibodies destroy the insulin-producing cells inside the pancreas. This results in decreased manufacturing of insulin which causes decreased uptake of glucose from the blood into the cells. It was also called Juvenile diabetes because most of the time it affects young people in the population, especially the children.
TYPE 2 DIABETES
This type of diabetes is also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. It affects the majority of the adult population. This type of diabetes occurs due to 2 basic pathologies, one is that the pancreas is unable to produce sufficient amounts of insulin to regulate glucose levels in the blood and the second pathology lies in insulin sensitivity of the body in which the receptors for insulin have decreased sensitization to insulin. So, besides the proper available amount of insulin, it is still not able to work efficiently. While In rare cases these two pathologies can occur simultaneously.
It is the type of diabetes that only affects pregnant women as indicated by its name. The incidence of pregnancy causes hormonal imbalance in the woman. This hormonal imbalance can affect the normal equilibrium of sugar and insulin resulting in increased blood sugar levels which are termed gestational diabetes. This pathology if remains undiagnosed throughout pregnancy can cause serious complications for the health of the mother as well as the baby.
It is the type of diabetes which is a combination of type 1 and type 2 usually mistakenly diagnosed as only the type two diabetes. It is also known as a latent form of autoimmune diabetes in adults. This type of diabetes is triggered only when the immune system produces antibodies that recognize the insulin-producing cells inside the pancreas as foreign bodies and starts destroying them much like type one diabetes. A GAD antibody test is used to diagnose type 1.5 diabetes mellitus.
Through modern research, it is now possible to treat diabetes completely regardless of its type. A very important factor in its complete treatment is patient compliance. The reason for this is that to treat any combination or form of diabetes mellitus the patient must follow a balanced diet prepared or recommended by a physician so that blood sugar levels can be maintained. Also, a moderate exercise plan is necessary for diabetes treatment. This combination of a balanced diet along with an exercise plan and insulin or medications that are prescribed by your physician altogether can get rid of diabetes mellitus. An important thing to remember is that even if one of the three components is neglected then any individual will face minor or major complications.
TREATMENT FOR TYPE ONE DIABETES
Treatment of diabetes type one includes the use of external insulin that can be given in the form of several injections at regular intervals or insulin patches that can be attached to your body which continuously releases insulin inside the body. In the market, there are different kinds of insulin available to treat this condition such as:
– Rapid-acting insulin works between 2.5 to 20 minutes of injection and can last up to 5 hours.
– Long-acting insulin works after 30 minutes and its effect can last for almost 24 hours
– Intermediate-acting insulin usually takes 60 to 90 minutes to show its effect and can last up to 24 hours
– Mixed insulin is that insulin in which rapid, long-acting, and intermediate-acting insulin are pre-mixed in different variations.
TREATMENT FOR TYPE TWO DIABETES
Depending upon your condition your physician can prescribe one of the following drugs for the treatment of type two diabetes mellitus so that your blood sugar levels remain under control. These drugs include:
– DPP-4 inhibitors
– GLP-1 receptor antagonists
– SLGT2 inhibitors
All of these medications either work by decreasing glucose production or improving glucose uptake by increasing the formation of insulin or by enhancing its sensitivity to insulin receptors.
TREATMENT FOR GESTATIONAL DIABETES
Gestational diabetes is usually treated by a combination of both diet and exercise so that medicine can be avoided during pregnancy however if it is still not enough to lower the blood glucose level to meet the required criteria your physician can prescribe Metformin or insulin injections. Your physician can also recommend that the blood sugar levels of the pregnant woman should be monitored on regular basis to note sugar level fluctuations during the pregnancy period. Gestational diabetes usually subsides after the baby is born but a woman with a history of gestational diabetes is more prone to develop type two diabetes mellitus.
TREATMENT FOR TYPE 1.5 DIABETES
Physicians usually recommend that this type of diabetes mellitus should be treated with a non-insulin medicine initially. If this disease progresses to type one diabetes then you are prescribed the use of insulin however if it still progresses from type one to type two diabetes then the treatment will be given according to the type two diabetes. While during this whole period physicians recommend a diet that is low in carbohydrates and an exercise plan that is moderate in stress.
Whilst diabetes currently does not have a cure, it can be treated. The first step to returning to health is to get diagnosed. Once diagnosed, you should then follow the prescribed treatment plan and monitor it closely to ensure the progress as intended. It is also important to ensure a healthy diet approved by your dietitian to enhance the effects of your treatment.
For self-measurement of blood glucose, ForaCare offers comprehensive diabetes self-care solutions. Among which is the FORA 6 series. The FORA 6 series is equipped with our revolutionary System In a Chip technology, which allows the measurement of multiple parameters in a single device. Thus giving you access to all the information you need to make the right medical decisions.
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